Jesus Christ – Part 4

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Next, the feet were fixed to the cross, either by nails or ropes. Ossuary findings and the Shroud of Turin suggest that nailing was the preferred Roman practice.23, 24, 30 Although the feet could be fixed to the sides of the stipes or to a wooden footrest (suppedaneum), they usually were nailed directly to the front of the stipes (Fig 5).11 To accomplish this, flexion of the knees may have been quite prominent, and the bent legs may have been rotated laterally (Fig 6) 23 -25, 30

Fig 5.Nailing of feet. Left, Position of feet atop one another and against stipes. Upper right, Location of nail in second intermetatarsal space. Lower right, Cross section of foot, at plane indicated at left, showing path of nail.

When the nailing was completed, the titulus was attached to the cross, by nails or cords, just above the victim’s head.11 The soldiers and the civilian crowd often taunted and jeered the condemned man, and the soldiers customarily divided up his clothes among themselves 11, 25 The length of survival generally ranged from three or four hours to three or four days and appears to have been inversely related to the severity of the scourging.8, 11 However, even if the scourging had been relatively mild, the Roman soldiers could hasten death by breaking the legs below the knees (erurifragium or skelokopia).8, 11

Not uncommonly, insects would light upon or burrow into the open wounds or the eyes, ears, and nose of the dying and helpless victim, and birds of prey would tear at these sites.16 Moreover, it was customary to leave the corpse on the cross to be devoured by predatory animals..8, 11, 12, 28 However, by Roman law, the family of the condemned could take the body for burial, after obtaining permission from the Roman judge.11

Since no one was intended to survive crucifixions the body was not released to the family until the soldiers were sure that the victim was dead. By custom, one of the Roman guards would pierce the body with a sword or lance.8, 11 Traditionally, this had been considered a spear wound to the heart through the right side of the chest — a fatal wound probably taught to most Roman soldiers.11 The Shroud of Turin documents this form of injury.5, 11, 22 Moreover, the standard infantry spear, which was 5 to 6 ft (1.5 to 1.8 m) long,lø could easily have reached the chest of a man crucified on the customary low cross.”

Medical Aspects of Crucifixion

With a knowledge of both anatomy and ancient crucifixion practices, one may reconstruct the probable medical aspects of this form of slow execution. Each wound apparently was intended to produce intense agony, and the contributing causes of death were numerous.

The scourging prior to crucifixion served to weaken the condemned man and, if blood loss was considerable, to produce orthostatie hypotension and even hypovolemie shock.8, 12 When the victim was thrown to the ground on his back, in preparation for transfixion of the hands, his scourging wounds most likely would become torn open again and contaminated with dirt.2, 16 Furthermore, with each respiration, the painful scourging wounds would be scraped against the rough wood of the stipes. 7 As a result, blood loss from the back probably would continue throughout the crucifixion ordeal.

With arms outstretched but not taut, the wrists were nailed to the patibulum.7, 11 It has been shown that the ligaments and bones of the wrist can support the weight of a body hanging from them, but the palms cannot.11 Accordingly, the iron spikes probably were driven between the radius and the carpals or between the two rows of carpal bones, 2, 10, 11, 30 either proximal to or through the strong bandlike flexor retinaeulum and the various interearpal ligaments (Fig 4). Although a nail in either location in the wrist might pass between the bony elements and thereby produce no fractures, the likelihood of painful periosteal injury would seem great. Furthermore, the driven nail would crush or sever the rather large sensorimotor median nerve (Fig 4).2, 7, 11 The stimulated nerve would produce excruciating bolts of fiery pain in both arms.7, 9 Although the severed median nerve would result in paralysis of a portion of the hand, isehemie eontraetures and impalement of various ligaments by the iron spike might produce a clawlike grasp.

Fig 6. Respirations during crucifixion. Left, Inhalation. With elbows extended and shoulders abducted, respiratory muscles of inhalation are passively stretched and thorax is expanded. Right, Exhalation. With elbows flexed and shoulders adducted and with weight of body on nailed feet, exhalation is accomplished as active, rather than passive, process. Breaking legs below knees would place burden of exhalation on shoulder and arm muscles alone and soon would result in exhaustion asphyxia.

Most commonly, the feet were fixed to the front of the stipes by means of an iron spike driven through the first or second intermetatarsal space, just distal to the tarsometatarsal joint.2, 5, 8, 11, 30 It is likely that the deep peroneal nerve and branches of the medial and lateral plantar nerves would have been injured by the nails (Fig 5). Although scourging may have resulted in considerable blood loss, crucifixion per se was a relatively bloodless procedure, since no major arteries, other than perhaps the deep plantar arch, pass through the favored anatomic sites of transfixion. 2, 10, 11

The major pathophysiologic effect of crucifixion, beyond the excruciating pain, was a marked interference with normal respiration, particularly exhalation (Fig 6). The weight of the body, pulling down on the outstretched arms and shoulders, would tend to fix the intercostal muscles in an inhalation state and thereby hinder passive exhalation. 2, 10, 11 Accordingly, exhalation was primarily diaphragmatic, and breathing was shallow. It is likely that this form of respiration would not suffice and that hypercarbia would soon result. The onset of muscle cramps or tetanic contractions, due to fatigue and hypercarbia, would hinder respiration even further.11

Adequate exhalation required lifting the body by pushing up on the feet and by flexing the elbows and adducting the shoulders (Fig 6) 2 However, this maneuver would place the entire weight of the body on the tarsals and would produce searing pain.7 Furthermore, flexion of the elbows would cause rotation of the wrists about the iron nails and cause fiery pain along the damaged median nerves.7 Lifting of the body would also painfully scrape the scourged back against the rough wooden stipes. 2, 7 Muscle cramps and paresthesias of the outstretched and uplifted arms would add to the discomfort. 7 As a result, each respiratory effort would become agonizing and tiring and lead eventually to asphyxia. 2, 3, 7, 10, 11

The actual cause of death by crucifixion was multifactorial and varied somewhat with each ease, but the two most prominent causes probably were hypovolemie shock and exhaustion asphyxia.2, 3, 7, 10 Other possible contributing factors included dehydration, 7, 16 stress-induced arrhythmias,3 and congestive heart failure with the rapid accumulation of pericardial and perhaps pleural effusions. 2, 7, 11 Crucifracture (breaking the legs below the knees), if performed, led to an asphyxic death within minutes.11 Death by crucifixion was, in every sense of the word, excruciating (Latin, excruciatus, or “out of the cross”).

Crucifixion of Jesus

After the scourging and the mocking, at about 9 AM, the Roman soldiers put Jesus’ clothes back on him and then led him and two thieves to be crucified.1 Jesus apparently was so weakened by the severe flogging that he could not carry the patibulum from the Praetorium to the site of crucifixion one third of a mile (600 to 650 m) away.1, 3, 5, 7 Simon of Cyrene was summoned to carry Christ’s cross, and the processional then made its way to Golgotha (or Calvary), an established crucifixion site.

Here, Jesus’ clothes, except for a linen loincloth, again were removed, thereby probably reopening the scourging wounds. He then was offered a drink of wine mixed with myrrh (gall) but, after tasting it, refused the drink.1 Finally, Jesus and the two thieves were crucified. Although scriptural references are made to nails in the hands,1 these are not at odds with the archaeological evidence of wrist wounds, since the ancients customarily considered the wrist to be a part of the hand.7, 11 The titulus (Fig 3) was attached above Jesus’ head. It is unclear whether Jesus was crucified on the Tau cross or the Latin cross; archaeological findings favor the former 11 and early tradition the latter.38 The fact that Jesus later was offered a drink of wine vinegar from a sponge placed on the stalk of the hyssop plant1 (approximately 20 in, or 50 em, long) strongly supports the belief that Jesus was crucified on the short cross.6

The soldiers and the civilian crowd taunted Jesus throughout the crucifixion ordeal, and the soldiers east lots for his clothing. 1 Christ spoke seven times from the cross.’ Since speech occurs during exhalation, these short, terse utterances must have been particularly difficult and painful. At about 3 PM that Friday, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, bowed his head, and died.1 The Roman soldiers and onlookers recognized his moment of death.1

Since the Jews did not want the bodies to remain on the crosses after sunset, the beginning of the Sabbath, they asked Pontius Pilate to order erueifraeture to hasten the deaths of the three crucified men.1 The soldiers broke the legs of the two thieves, but when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs.1 Rather, one of the soldiers pierced his side, probably with an infantry spear, and produced a sudden flow of blood and water.1 Later that day, Jesus’ body was taken down from the cross and placed in a tomb.1

Fig 7.Spear wound to chest. Left, Probable path of spear. Right, Cross section of thorax, at level of plane indicated at left, showing structures perforated by spear. LA indicates left atrium; LV, left ventricle; RA, right atrium; RV, right ventricle.


Two aspects of Jesus’ death have been the source of great controversy, namely, the nature of the wound in his side 4, 6 and the cause of his death after only several hours on the cross.13-17 The gospel of John describes the piercing of Jesus’ side and emphasizes the sudden flow of blood and water.1 Some authors have interpreted the flow of water to be ascites 12 or urine, from an abdominal midline perforation of the bladder.15 However, the Greek word (plvra, or pleura) 32, 35, 36 used by John clearly denoted laterality and often implied the ribs.6, 32, 36 Therefore, it seems probable that the wound was in the thorax and well away from the abdominal midline.

Although the side of the wound was not designated by John, it traditionally has been depicted on the right side.4 Supporting this tradition is the fact that a large flow of blood would be more likely with a perforation of the distended and thin-walled right atrium or ventricle than the thick-walled and contracted left ventricle. Although the side of the wound may never be established with certainty, the right seems more probable than the left.

Some of the skepticism in accepting John’s description has arisen from the difficulty in explaining, with medical accuracy, the flow of both blood and water. Part of this difficulty has been based on the assumption that the blood appeared first, then the water. However, in the ancient Greek, the order of words generally denoted prominence and not necessarily a time sequence.37 Therefore, it seems likely that John was emphasizing the prominence of blood rather than its appearance preceding the water.

Therefore, the water probably represented serous pleural and pericardial fluid, 5-7, 11 and would have preceded the flow of blood and been smaller in volume than the blood. Perhaps in the setting of hypovolemia and impending acute heart failure, pleural and pericardial effusions may have developed and would have added to the volume of apparent water.5, 11 The blood, in contrast, may have originated from the right atrium or the right ventricle (Fig 7) or perhaps from a hemoperieardium.5, 7, 11

Jesus’ death after only three to six hours on the cross surprised even Pontius Pilate.’ The fact that Jesus cried out in a loud voice and then bowed his head and died suggests the possibility of a catastrophic terminal event. One popular explanation has been that Jesus died of cardiac rupture. In the setting of the scourging and crucifixions with associated hypovolemia, hyperemia, and perhaps an altered coagulable state, friable non-infective thrombotic vegetations could have formed on the aortic or mitral valve. These then could have dislodged and embolized into the coronary circulation and thereby produced an acute transmural myocardial infarction. Thrombotic valvular vegetations have been reported to develop under analogous acute traumatic conditions.39 Rupture of the left Ventricular free wall may occur, though uncommonly, in the first few hours following infarction.40

However, another explanation may be more likely. Jesus’ death may have been hastened simply by his state of exhaustion and by the severity of the Scourging, with its resultant blood loss and preshock state.7 The fact that he could not carry his patibulum supports this interpretation. The actual cause of Jesus’ death, like that of other crucified victims, may have been multifactorial and related primarily to hypovolemie shock, exhaustion asphyxia, and perhaps acute heart failure.2, 3, 5-7, 10, 11 A fatal cardiac arrhythmia may have accounted for the apparent catastrophic terminal event.

Thus, it remains unsettled whether Jesus died of cardiac rupture or of cardiorespiratory failure. However, the important feature may be not how he died but rather whether he died. Clearly, the weight of historical and medical evidence indicates that Jesus was dead before the wound to his side was inflicted and supports the traditional view that the spear, thrust between his right ribs, probably perforated not only the right lung but also the pericardium and heart and thereby ensured his death (Fig 7). Accordingly, interpretations based on the assumption that Jesus did not die on the cross appear to be at odds with modern medical knowledge.

[1] an incorporating a Alexander the Greats Greek culture, language and philosophy

[2] Isaiah 48:2-5 For they call themselves after the holy city, And lean on the God of Israel; The Lord of hosts is His name: 3 “I have declared the former things from the beginning; They went forth from My mouth, and I caused them to hear it. Suddenly I did them, and they came to pass. 4 Because I knew that you were obstinate, And your neck was an iron sinew, And your brow bronze, 5 Even from the beginning I have declared it to you; Before it came to pass I proclaimed it to you, Lest you should say, ‘My idol has done them, And my carved image and my molded image Have commanded them.’

[3] 2 Peter 1:19-21 And so we have the prophetic word confirmed, which you do well to heed as a light that shines in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts; 20 knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation, 21 for prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.


Jesus Christ – Part 3

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On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ

William D. Edwards, MD; Wesley J. Gabel, MDiv; Floyd E. Hosmer, MS, AMI

Jesus of Nazareth underwent Jewish and Roman trials was flogged and was sentenced to death by crucifixion. The scourging produced deep stripelike lacerations and appreciable blood loss and it probably set the stage for hypovolemic shock as evidenced by the fact that Jesus was too weakened to carry the crossbar (patibulum) to Golgotha. At the site of crucifixion his wrists were nailed to the patibulum and after the patibulum was lifted onto the upright post (stipes) his feet were nailed to the stipes. The major pathophysiologic effect of crucifixion was an interference with normal respirations. Accordingly death resulted primarily from hypovolemic shock and exhaustion asphyxia. Jesus death was ensured by the thrust of a soldier s spear into his side. Modern medical interpretation of the historical evidence indicates that Jesus was dead when taken down from the cross.

(JAMA 1986;255:1455-1463)

THE LIFE and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth have formed the basis for a major world religion (Christianity), have appreciably influenced the course of human history, and, by virtue of a compassionate attitude toward the sick, also have contributed to the development of modern medicine. The eminence of Jesus as a historical figure and the suffering and controversy associated with his death have stimulated us to investigate, in an interdisciplinary manner, the circumstances surrounding his crucifixion. Accordingly, it is our intent to present not a theological treatise but rather a medically and historically accurate account of the physical death of the one called Jesus Christ.


The source Material concerning Christ’s death comprises a body of literature and not a physical body or its skeletal remains. Accordingly, the credibility of any discussion of Jesus’ death will be determined primarily by the credibility of one’s sources. For this review, the source material includes the writings of ancient Christian and non-Christian authors, the writings of modern authors, and the Shroud of Turin.1 Using the legal-historical method of scientific investigation,27 scholars have established the reliability and accuracy of the ancient manuscripts.26,27,29,31

The most extensive and detailed descriptions of the life and death of Jesus are to be found in the New Testament gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.1 The other 23 books of the New Testament support but do not expand on the details recorded in the gospels. Contemporary Christian, Jewish, and Roman authors provide additional insight concerning the first-century Jewish and Roman legal systems and the details of scourging and crucifixion.5 Seneca, Livy, Plutarch, and others refer to crucifixion practices in their works.8,28 Specifically, Jesus (or his crucifixion) is mentioned by the Roman historians Cornelius Tacitus, Pliny the Younger, and Suetonius, by non-Roman historians Thallus and Phlegon, by the satirist Lucian of Samosata, by the Jewish Talmud, and by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, although the authenticity of portions of the latter is problematic.26

The Shroud of Turin is considered by many to represent the actual burial cloth of Jesus,22 and several publications concerning the medical aspects of his death draw conclusions from this assumption.5, 11 The Shroud of Turin and recent archaeological findings provide valuable information concerning Roman crucifixion practices.22-24 The interpretations of modern writers, based on a knowledge of science and medicine not available in the first century, may offer additional insight concerning the possible mechanisms of Jesus’ death.2-17

When taken in concert certain facts — the extensive and early testimony of both Christian proponents and opponents, and their universal acceptance of Jesus as a true historical figure; the ethic of the gospel writers, and the shortness of the time interval between the events and the extant manuscripts; and the confirmation of the gospel accounts by historians and archaeological findings 26-27 — ensure a reliable testimony from which a modern medical interpretation of Jesus’ death may be made.


After Jesus and his disciples had observed the Passover meal in an upper room in a home in southwest Jerusalem, they traveled to the Mount of Olives, northeast of the city (Fig 1). (Owing to various adjustments in the calendar, the years of Jesus’ birth and death remain controversial.29 However, it is likely that Jesus was born in either 4 or 6 BC and died in 30 AD.11, 29 During the Passover observance in 30 AD, the Last Supper would have been observed on Thursday,

Fig 1. Map of Jerusalem at time of Christ. Jesus left Upper Room and walked with disciples to Mount of Olives and Garden of Gethsemane (1), where he was arrested and taken first to Annas and then to Caiaphas (2). After first trial before political Sanhedrin at Caiaphas’ residence, Jesus was tried again before religious Sanhedrin, probably at Temple (3) Next, he was taken to Pontius Pilate (4), who sent him to Herod Antipas (5). Herod returned Jesus to Pilate (6), and Pilate finally handed over Jesus for scourging at Fortress of Antonia and for crucifixion at Golgotha (7). (Modified from Pfeiffer et al.30)

April 6 [Nisan 13], and Jesus would have been crucified on Friday, April 7 [Nisan 14].29) At nearby Gethsemane, Jesus, apparently knowing that the time of his death was near, suffered great mental anguish, and, as described by the physician Luke, his sweat became like blood.’

Although this is a very rare phenomenon, bloody sweat (hematidrosis or hemohidrosis) may occur in highly emotional states or in persons with bleeding disorders.18-20 As a result of hemorrhage into the sweat glands, the skin becomes fragile and tender. 2, 11 Luke’s description supports the diagnosis of hematidrosis rather than eccrine chromidrosis (brown or yellow-green sweat) or stigmatization (blood oozing from the palms or elsewhere).18-21 Although some authors have suggested that hematidrosis produced hypovolemia, we agree with Bucklin 5 that Jesus’ actual blood loss probably was minimal. However, in the cold night air, 1 it may have produced chills.


Jewish Trials

Soon after midnight, Jesus was arrested at Gethsemane by the temple officials and was taken first to Annas and then to Caiaphas, the Jewish high priest for that year (Fig 1). 1 Between 1 AM and daybreak, Jesus was tried before Caiaphas and the political Sanhedrin and was found guilty of blasphemy. 1 The guards then blindfolded Jesus, spat on him, and struck him in the face with their fists.1 Soon after daybreak, presumably at the temple (Fig l), Jesus was tried before the religious Sanhedrin (with the Pharisees and the Sadducees) and again was found guilty of blasphemy, a crime punishable by death.1, 5

Roman Trials

Since permission for an execution had to come from the governing Romans, 1 Jesus was taken early in the morning by the temple officials to the Praetorium of the Fortress of Antonia, the residence and governmental seat of Pontius Pilate, the procurator of Judea (Fig 1). However, Jesus was presented to Pilate not as a blasphemer but rather as a self-appointed king who would undermine the Roman authority. 1 Pilate made no charges against Jesus and sent him to Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Judea. 1 Herod likewise made no official charges and then returned Jesus to Pilate (Fig 1). 1 Again, Pilate could find no basis for a legal charge against Jesus, but the people persistently demanded crucifixions Pilate finally granted their demand and handed over Jesus to be flogged (scourged) and crucified. (MeDowell 25 has reviewed the prevailing political, religious, and economic climates in Jerusalem at the time of Jesus’ death, and Bucklin 5 has described the various illegalities of the Jewish and Roman trials.)

Health of Jesus

The rigors of Jesus’ ministry (that is, traveling by foot throughout Palestine) would have precluded any major physical illness or a weak general constitution. Accordingly, it is reasonable to assume that Jesus was in good physical condition before his walk to Gethsemane. However, during the 12 hours between 9 PM Thursday and 9 AM Friday, he had suffered great emotional stress (as evidenced by hematidrosis), abandonment by his closest friends (the disciples), and a physical beating (after the first Jewish trial). Also, in the setting of a traumatic and sleepless night, he had been forced to walk more than 2.5 miles (4.0 km) to and from the sites of the various trials (Fig 1). These physical and emotional factors may have rendered Jesus particularly vulnerable to the adverse hemodynamic effects of the scourging.


Fig 2.Scourging. Left, Short whip (flagrum) with lead balls and sheep bones tied into leather thongs. Center left, Naked victim tied to flogging post. Deep stripelike lacerations were usually associated with considerable blood IOS6 Center right, View from above, showing position of lictors. Right, Inferomedial direction of wounds.

Scourging Practices

Flogging was a legal preliminary to every Roman execution, 28 and only women and Roman senators or soldiers (except in eases of desertion) were exempt.11 The usual instrument was a short whip (flagellum or flagellum) with several single or braided leather thongs of variable lengths, in which small iron balls or sharp pieces of sheep bones were tied at intervals (Fig 2).5, 7, 11 Occasionally, staves also were used. 8, 12 For scourging, the man was stripped of his clothing, and his hands were tied to an upright post (Fig 2). 11 The back, buttocks, and legs were flogged either by two soldiers (lictors) or by one who alternated positions.5, 7, 11, 28 The severity of the scourging depended on the disposition of the lictors and was intended to weaken the victim to a state just short of collapse or death. 8 After the scourging, the soldiers often taunted their victim.11

Medical Aspects of Scourging

As the Roman soldiers repeatedly struck the victim’s back with full force, the iron balls would cause deep contusions, and the leather thongs and sheep bones would cut into the skin and Subcutaneous tissues.7 Then, as the flogging continued, the lacerations would tear into the underlying skeletal muscles and produce quivering ribbons of bleeding flesh.2, 7, 25 Pain and blood loss generally set the stage for circulatory shock.12 The extent of blood loss may well have determined how long the victim would survive on the cross.8

Scourging of Jesus

At the Praetorium, Jesus was severely whipped. (Although the severity of the scourging is not discussed in the four gospel accounts, it is implied in one of the epistles [1 Peter 2:24]. A detailed word study of the ancient Greek text for this verse indicates that the scourging of Jesus was particularly harsh.33) It is not known whether the number of lashes was limited to 39, in accordance with Jewish law.5 The Roman soldiers, amused that this weakened man had claimed to be a king, began to mock him by placing a robe on his shoulders, a crown of thorns on his head, and a wooden staff as a scepter in his right hand.1 Next, they spat on Jesus and struck him on the head with the wooden staff.1 Moreover, when the soldiers tore the robe from Jesus’ back, they probably reopened the scourging wounds.7

The severe scourging, with its intense pain and appreciable blood loss, most probably left Jesus in a pre-shock state. Moreover, hematidrosis had rendered his skin particularly tender. The physical and mental abuse meted out by the Jews and the Romans, as well as the lack of food, water, and sleep, also contributed to his generally weakened state. Therefore, even before the actual crucifixion, Jesus’ physical condition was at least serious and possibly critical.


Fig 3.Cross and titulus. Left, victim carrying crossbar (patibulum) to site of upright post (stipes). center Low Tau cross (crux commissa), commonly used by Romans at time of Christ. upper right, Rendition of Jesus’ titulus with name and crime Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews written in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. Lower right Possible methods for attaching tittles to Tau cross (left) and Latin cross (right).

Variations in Crosses Used for Crucifixion

Latin Designation Characteristics

lnfelix lignum Tree

Crux simplex, Upright post

crux acuta

Crux composita Stipes and patibulum

Crux humilis Low cross

Crux sublimis Tall cross

Crux commissa T-shaped (Tau) cross

Crux immissa t-shaped (Latin) cross

Crux capitata t-shaped (Latin) cross

Crux decussata X-shaped cross

Crucifixion Practices

Crucifixion probably first began among the Persians.34 Alexander the Great introduced the practice to Egypt and Carthage, and the Romans appear to have learned of it from the Carthaginians.11 Although the Romans did not invent crucifixions they perfected it as a form of torture and capital punishment that was designed to produce a slow death with maximum pain and suffering.10, 17 It was one of the most disgraceful and cruel methods of execution and usually was reserved only for slaves, foreigners, revolutionaries, and the vilest of criminals.3, 25, 28 Roman law usually protected Roman citizens from crucifixion, 5 except perhaps in the ease of desertion by soldiers.

In its earliest form in Persia, the victim was either tied to a tree or was tied to or impaled on an upright post, usually to keep the guilty victim’s feet from touching holy ground. 8, 11, 30, 34, 38 Only later was a true cross used; it was characterized by an upright post (stipes) and a horizontal crossbar (patibulum), and it had several variations (Table).11 Although archaeological and historical evidence strongly indicates that the low Tau cross was preferred by the Romans in Palestine at the time of Christ (Fig 3),2, 7, 11 crucifixion practices often varied in a given geographic region and in accordance with the imagination of the executioners, and the Latin cross and other forms also may have been used.28

Fig 4.Nailing of wrists. Left, Size of iron nail. Center, Location of nail in wrist, between carpals and radius. Right, Cross section of wrist, at level

of plane indicated at left, showing path of nail, with probable transection of median nerve and impalement of flexor pollicis longus, but without injury to major arterial trunks and without fractures of bones.

It was customary for the condemned man to carry his own cross from the flogging post to the site of crucifixion outside the city walls.8, 11, 30 He was usually naked, unless this was prohibited by local customs.11 Since the weight of the entire cross was probably well over 300 lb. (136 kg), only the crossbar was carried (Fig 3).11 The patibulum, weighing 75 to 125 lb. (34 to 57 kg),11, 30 was placed across the nape of the victim’s neck and balanced along both shoulders. Usually, the outstretched arms.then were tied to the crossbar.7, 11 The processional to the site of crucifixion was led by a complete Roman military guard, headed by a centurion.3, 11 One of the soldiers carried a sign (titulus) on which the condemned man’s name and crime were displayed (Fig 3).3, 11 Later, the titulus would be attached to the top of the cross.11 The Roman guard would not leave the victim until they were sure of his death. 9, 11

Outside the city walls was permanently located the heavy upright wooden stipes, on which the patibulum would be secured. In the case of the Tau cross, this was accomplished by means of a mortise and tenon joint, with or without reinforcement by ropes. 10, 11, 30 To prolong the crucifixion process, a horizontal wooden block or plank, serving as a crude seat (sedile or sedulum), often was attached midway down the stipes.3, 11 , 16 Only very rarely, and probably later than the time of Christ, was an additional block (suppedaneum) employed for transfixion of the feet.9, 11

At the site of execution, by law, the victim was given a bitter drink of wine mixed with myrrh (gall) as a mild analgesic .7 , 17 The criminal was then thrown to the ground on his back, with his arms outstretched along the patibulum.11 The hands could be nailed or tied to the crossbar, but nailing apparently was preferred by the Romans..8, 11 The archaeological remains of a crucified body, found in an ossuary near Jerusalem and dating from the time of Christ, indicate that the nails were tapered iron spikes approximately 5 to 7 in (13 to 18 cm) long with a square shaft 3/8 in (1 cm) across. 23, 24, 30 Furthermore, ossuary findings and the Shroud of Turin have documented that the nails commonly were driven through the wrists rather than the palms (Fig 4). 22-24, 30

After both arms were fixed to the crossbar, the patibulum and the victim, together, were lifted onto the stipes.11 On the low cross, four soldiers could accomplish this relatively easily. However, on the tall cross, the soldiers used either wooden forks or ladders.11


Jesus Christ – Part 2

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It has been proposed that these prophecies were simply read and known by Jesus, then He set out to “self-fulfill” them. Is that possible? Remember, there were many claiming to be Christ. Consider how these prophecies could have been fulfilled by an imposter:

  • Born in Bethlehem
  • Raised in Nazareth
  • Escaped a massacre
  • Fled to Egypt
  • Ancestor of David and Jesse
  • Chose His own crucifixion???
  • Determined His bones would not be broke???
  • Caused the betrayal of Judas? The abandonment by His disciples? The price of His betrayal? He caused Judas to return the money and hang himself? A potters field purchased?
  • Born of a virgin
  • Died at exactly the moment of Passover
  • Caused the sun to go black, an earthquake, dead to rise up out of their grave and the temple veil to tear in two
  • Performed countless miracles
  • Rose from the dead!!!!????

V. The Events of Jesus Death & Resurrection

What follows is a modern paraphrase of the last days of Jesus life:

After three years of teaching, Jesus instructed His disciples to bring Him a certain young donkey, one that had never been ridden, and He sat on it. Then as He rode toward Jerusalem, a huge crowd began to rejoice and loudly praise God for all the mighty works which they had seen.

They called out, “Hosanna! Blessed be the King that comes in the name of the Lord: peace in heaven, and glory in the highest.” But when Jesus neared the city, he looked at it and cried over it because the people still did not recognize him as the promised Savior.

Then Satan entered into Judas Iscariot, one of Jesus’ twelve disciples, and Judas conspired with the chief priests and captains about how he might betray Jesus. They were glad, and agreed to give him thirty pieces of silver to inform them of a time and a place they could capture Jesus when there were no crowds around Him.

Jesus knew that His hour to die had come, so He gathered His disciples together for a Passover dinner. As they ate, Jesus took bread, blessed it, broke it, gave it to them, saying, “Take, eat: this is My body, broken for you. This do in remembrance of Me.” And He took a cup, and when He had given thanks, he gave it to them; and they all drank. And He said to them, “This is my blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the forgiveness of sins. But I say unto you, I will not any more drink of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it again with you in My Father’s kingdom.”

Jesus said, “Don’t let yourselves be upset: you believe in God, believe also in Me. In my Father’s house are many mansions, and I am going there to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come back again to get you, so that you can be with Me. And you know where I am going and you know the way to get there.”

But Thomas said, “Lord, we don’t know where you’re going, so how could we know the way?”

Jesus answered, “I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man comes to the Father except through me.”

That evening, Jesus also warned the disciples of difficult times to come. He said, “If the world hates you, remember that it hated Me before it hated you. He that hates Me, hates My Father also.”

After supper, Jesus walked to a garden called Gethsemane for a time of prayer. His disciples followed Him to this secluded place.

After His prayer, the chief priests and captains of the temple and the elders arrived there, looking for Jesus. Judas, who had just eaten with Him, was leading the group. Jdas approached Jesus, greeting Him with a kiss of betrayal.

Suddenly, Jesus identified himself to the mob by saying,
“I AM.” The crowd went backwards and fell to the ground.

After that, Jesus allowed himself to be tied up and brought into the high priest’s house.

The temple officers who held Jesus ridiculed Him and spit in His face. And when they had blindfolded Him, they punched Him and slapped Him on the face, and then said, “Prophesy you holy man. Who hit you?”

Early the next morning, the crowd led Jesus to the Roman governor, Pilate. And they began to accuse Him, saying, “We found this fellow corrupting our Jewish nation.”

But after questioning Jesus, Pilate told the chief priests, the rulers and the people; “He has done nothing worthy of death. I’ll just order Him to be beaten and then release Him.” But they called out all at once, saying, “Get rid of this man. Crucify Him. Crucify Him.”

Pilate, wanting to satisfy the people, had Jesus brutally whipped, and then turned Him over to be crucified.

The Roman soldiers braided a mock crown of thorns, placing it on His head, and they put a purple robe on Him. They said, “Hail, King of the Jews!” And they beat Him with their fists.

Afterwards they took Jesus and led Him away, making Him carry a wooden cross up to a place called Calvary, also known as Golgotha or the place of a skull.

There in the same area, where many years before God had told Abraham to sacrifice his only beloved son Isaac, they nailed Jesus, God’s only beloved son, to the cross.

As they did this, Jesus said, “Father, forgive them; they don’t know what they are doing.”

While Jesus hung between two criminals who were also being executed, soldiers took His clothes, gambling for His robe, which fulfilled the prophetic words spoken by David.

For three hours, the people watched. The rulers with them mocked Jesus, saying, “He saved others; let Him save Himself if He is the Christ, the chosen of God.” Then a darkness came on the land which stayed for three more hours as the prophet’s words were fulfilled: “The Lord laid the sins of us all on Him.”

Jesus then cried out with a loud voice, saying, “My God, My God, why have You forsaken me?” Jesus, knowing that everything was now accomplished, fulfilled scripture when He said, “I thirst.” The soldiers ridiculed Jesus as they offered Him vinegar by saying, “If you are the king of the Jews, save yourself.”

Jesus tasted the vinegar, then called out, “It is finished. Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.” Then He bowed His head, and let His spirit go.

As He died, the sun darkened and the earth quaked, and the thick veil of the Temple ripped down the middle. Now when the Roman captain in charge saw what happened, he said, “Truly this man was the Son of God.”

Then the soldiers came and broke the legs of the two thieves who were hanging on the crosses beside Jesus.

But when the soldiers saw that Jesus was already dead, they didn’t break His legs. Instead, one of them pierced His side with a spear, allowing blood and water to pour out. All of this happened so that the Scriptures would be fulfilled: “None of His bones will be broken,” and “They shall look on Him whom they pierced.”

Afterwards, two believers (Joseph and Nicodemus) took Jesus’ body, wound it in linen grave clothes dipped in spices, and laid His body in a tomb. Then, as requested by the Jewish leaders, the tomb was sealed and guarded by Roman soldiers.

Now, after three days, there was a great earthquake, and an angel of the Lord rolled back the stone from the tomb’s door. In fright, the Roman soldiers trembled and then ran away. When followers of Jesus came to the tomb and saw the stone moved, they were confused.

Suddenly, two men stood by them in shining garments, saying, “Why are you looking for the living among the dead? He is not here, He is risen. Remember how He told you before that He must be delivered into the hands of sinful men and be crucified, and the third day rise again?”

Then they remembered His words. The same day in the evening, Jesus came to the disciples and stood among them and said, “Peace to you.” But they were terrified, thinking that they were seeing a spirit.

So He said, “Look at my hands and my feet, it is really Me. Touch me and see, for a spirit doesn’t have flesh and bones, like you see I have. Everything happened as I told you it would because all the writings that described me in the law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, had to be fulfilled.”

Then He opened their understanding, saying, “It is written in the Scriptures that Christ must suffer and rise from the dead the third day; and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in His name among all nations. And you have seen these things.”

Jesus continued appearing to many people, showing them that He was alive, which gave infallible proof of His resurrection. And He instructed His disciples, “Go into all the world and preach the Gospel.”

At the end of forty days, Jesus announced to His disciples, “You shall receive power after the Holy Spirit comes upon you, and you shall tell others about Me, both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and to the uttermost part of the earth.”

As they watched, Jesus was taken up, and a cloud took Him out of their sight. Two men in white clothing said, “Why are you standing there staring up into heaven? This same Jesus, who was just taken up into heaven, shall come back again in the same manner as you saw Him go.”

A. Sunday

1. Triumphal Entry – John 11.55-12.1

B. Monday

1. Cursing Of The Fig Tree – Matt 21.18-19a

C. Tuesday

1. Withered Fig Tree – Matt 21:19-22

2. Official Challenge Of Christ’s Authority – Matt 21:23-27

3. The Olivet Discourse – Matt 24-25

D. Wednesday

1. Arrangements For Betrayal – Matt 26.1-5, Mark 14, Luke 21.37-22.2

E. Thursday

1. The Last Supper – Matt 26, Mark 14, Luke 22, John 13

2. The Upper Room Discourse – John 14-17

F. Friday

· Jesus betrayed, arrested, and forsaken
Matt 26:47–56, Mark 14:43–52, Lk 22:47–53, Jn 18:2–12

· Trial

o First Jewish phase, before Anna – Jn 18:13–24

o Second Jewish phase, before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin – Matt 26.57-58

o Peter’s denials – Matt 26:69–75, Mk 14:66–72, Lk 22:55–65, Jn 18:25

o Third Jewish phase, before the Sanhedrin – Matt 27:1, Mk 15:1a, Lk 22:66

· Remorse and suicide of Judas Iscariot (Acts 1:18–19) Matt 27:3–10

· Trial continues

o First Roman phase, before Pilate – Matt 27:2,11–14, Jn 18:28–38

o Second Roman phase, before Herod Antipas – Lk 23:6–12

o Third Roman phase, before Pilate – Matt 27:15–26, Lk 2313-25

· Laws broken in the course of Jesus arrest, trial and murder

o Trials could only occur in public places, not in palaces or homes

o Trials could not occur on Passover Eve, Passover, Feast Days or at NIGHT

o Sentencing could only occur the day AFTER a trial

o Witnesses were manufactured

o Two or three credible, agreeing witness were needed to condemn a man

· Many falsely testified and none agreed – Mk 14.56

o Arrests could not be made at night

o The Sanhedrin did not have authority to produce criminal charges, only to investigate them

o The Sanhedrin had already predetermined the verdict and sentence

o Jesus was subjected to ruthless cruelty and not shown the mercy afforded under Jewish law

o The charges against Jesus changed throughout the course of His trial

o Christ was not permitted to defend himself which was allowed under Jewish law

o The Sanhedrin pronounced a death penalty which it did not have the authority to do

o Pilate had Jesus flogged even while stating that he had found nothing guilty about Jesus



· Mockery by the Roman soldiers
Matt 27:27–30, Mk 15:16–19

· Journey to Golgotha
Matt 27:31–34, Mk 15:20–23, Lk 23:26–33a, Jn 19:17

· First 3 hours of crucifixion
Matt 27:35–44, Mk 15:24–32, Lk 23:33b–43, Jn 19:18–27

· Last 3 hours of crucifixion – Matt 27:45–50, Mk 15:33–37
Lk 23:44–45a, 46; Jn 19:28–30

· Witnesses of Jesus’ death
Matt 27:51–56, Mk 15:38–41, Lk 23:45b, 47–49

· Certification of death and procurement of the body
Matt 27:57–58, Mk 15:42–45, Lk 23:50–52, Jn 19:31–38

· Jesus’ body placed in a tomb
Matt 27:59–60, Mk 15:46, Lk 23:53–54, Jn 19:39–42

· Tomb watched by the women and guarded by the soldiers
Matt 27:61–66, Mk 15:47, Lk 23:55–56

G. Saturday

H. Sunday

· The Empty Tomb visited by the women – Matt 28:1, Mk 16:1

· The stone rolled away – Matt 28:2–4

· The tomb found to be empty by the women
Matt28:5–8, Mk 16:2–8, Lk 24:1–8, Jn 20:1

· The tomb found the be empty by Peter and John
Lk 24:9–11, Jn 20:2–10

· Appearance to Mary Magdalene – Jn 20:11–18

· Appearance to the other women – Matt 28:9–10

· Report of the soldiers to the Jewish authorities – Matt 28:11–15

· Appearance to two disciples traveling to Emmaus – Lk 24:13–32

· Report of the two disciples to the rest (1 Cor. 15:5a) – Lk 24:33–35

· Appearance to the 10 assembled disciples – Lk 24:36–43, Jn 20:19–25

· Appearance to the 11 assembled disciples (1 Cor. 15:5b) – Jn 20:26–31

· Appearance to the 7 disciples while fishing – Jn 21:1–25

· Appearance to the 11 in Galilee (1 Cor. 15:6) – Matt 28:16–20

· Appearance to James, His brother (1 Cor. 15:7)

· Appearance to the disciples in Jerusalem (Acts 1:3–8) – Lk 24:44–49


· Christ’s parting blessing and departure (Acts 1:9–12) – Lk 24:50–53


Jesus Christ – Part 1

(Click here to search for all the posts in this series…)

Excruciate – Ex (out of); cruciate (cross); “out of the cross”

Jesus death was in every sense excruciating. Death on the cross is still used as the foundation of describing the most intense pain imaginable as “excruciating”

I. Political, Religious and Cultural Climate

It is important to understand the climate surrounding the events of Jesus death. A richer grasp of His sacrifice is possible through the knowledge of what was occurring in the political and religious communities at the time.

A. Political

It is hard to separate the political from the religious during this time in Israel’s history because it appears very little if any true worship was occurring.

Following the conquering of Palestine by General Pompey, the Romans occupied Israel and continually struggled to find a political balance with the troublesome and fanatical (to the Roman mind) Jews. The Roman rulers were in constant compromise and appeasement to keep the Jews pacified.

The Romans were the undisputed rulers of the world at this time. They had a particular disdain for Jews and their exclusive form of religion. Herod the Great was the local Roman King. He was exceptionally cruel and this hastened the fervent longing by all the Jews for their Coming Saviour.

The Romans allowed a token of self-government to pacify the religious leaders. The Pharisees were the ruling majority and were allowed to save face and maintain power in the eyes of the people, but in truth, Rome ruled.

B. Religious

The Jewish populace as a whole was in great expectation of the Messiah but not primarily for spiritual reasons. They foresaw the Christ as a military and religious leader who would dethrone the Romans and bring Israel to power.

1. Pharisees

The religious party probably began as the “holy ones” associated with the Maccabees in the endeavor to rid the land of Hellenistic elements. When the Maccabees turned themselves to Hellenism [1] once it was in power, the hol one “separated” (the possible source of the name, Pharisees) from the official religious establishment of Judea. The Pharisees interpreted the law strictly in accordance with a developing oral tradition and sought to make the understanding binding upon all Jews. Though few in number, The Pharisees enjoyed the favor of the majority of the people Palestine. (MacArthur)

2. Sadducees

Probably from the name “Zadok,” the high priestly line, the Hellenized, aristocratic Jews became the guardians of the temple policy and practices. The Sadducees rejected the Old Testament as Scripture except for the Torah, as well as any teaching they believed was not found in the Torah (the first 5 book of the OT), e.g., the resurrection from the dead (Acts 23:6-8) (MacArthur)

The religious leaders of Israel had a very lucrative system of worship established and were much more concerned with maintaining power and control through an impossibly complex tradition of rituals.

The Jewish people not only endured the bondage of Rome, but the were doubly oppressed by the burden of corrupt religion they could never hope to conform to.

The stage was set for the Saviour.

II. General Background of Jesus of Nazareth

· Born in Bethlehem in a manger, outside of a “no vacancy” inn in the midst of common domestic animals

· Born with only a biological mother, Mary; God literally being the Father of Jesus who was miraculously conceived in a virgin thus not inheriting Adams sin as prophesied in Isaiah

· Joseph, Jesus earthly father; from Nazareth, a carpenter by trade

· Joseph and Mary were both descendants of King David as prophesied in Scripture

· Jesus early life was that of a normal boy; learning carpentry

· He gives glimpses of who He is by His remarkable teaching in the Temple

· Jesus is 30 years old when He begins His 3 year earthly ministry

· John the Baptist announced the beginning of Jesus ministry and baptized Him

o “Behold the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world” (Jn 1:29)

· Jesus spends 40 days and nights in the desert fasting and being tempted by Satan

· Jesus lives a fully human life being tempted in every way, yet never sins; where Adam failed, Christ succeeded

· Jesus performs countless miracles and still the ruling religious leaders attribute His power to “Beelzebub” (the unpardonable sin) (Lk 11:15)

· Jesus chooses his 12 disciples and call them to simply “Follow Me”

· Jesus proclaims himself as God very clearly

o Before Abraham “I AM” (Jn 8:58)

o I and the Father are One (Jn 17:11, 10:30)

o Jesus forgives sin (Mk 2:5)

o Allows John the Baptist to declare it (Jn 1:29)

o Allows Himself to be worshiped (Matt 8:2)

· Predicts, and proclaims His coming torture, suffering and persecution; willingly submits Himself to it (Luke 22:41)

III. Passover Fulfilled

The symbology and fulfillment of the Passover is worthy of separate mention. Exodus 12 gives us the account of the instituting of Passover.

Now the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, 2 “This month shall be your beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you.

· Jesus is our new beginning

3 Speak to all the congregation of Israel, saying: ‘On the tenth of this month every man shall take for himself a lamb, according to the house of his father, a lamb for a household.

· Salvation is personal. Every man, every family does it individually. It is not dispensed by some religion or a man

4 And if the household is too small for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next to his house take it according to the number of the persons; according to each man’s need you shall make your count for the lamb. 5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year. You may take it from the sheep or from the goats.

· The sacrifice had to be perfect. The Lamb here was a temporary covering of sin; the Lamb of God would pay the price once and for all. That’s why Jews had to sacrifice continually. That’s why Jesus had to die only once.

6 Now you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month.

· The Lamb became part of the family for two weeks. This was a very personal sacrifice, very emotional. It was to represent the incredible trauma of sin and how it destroys the innocent.

Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at twilight.

· The Lamb was killed as the sun set representing the Light of the World leaving us.

7 And they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and on the lintel of the houses where they eat it.

· The blood was swatted onto the top and sides of the doorway (seem familiar!). The blood “covered” the household and when Death (God’s judgment) passed by, It saw only the blood, not the sinner behind it.

· God always requires a blood payment to atone for sin

8 Then they shall eat the flesh on that night; roasted in fire, with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.

· We partake of Christ body individually through communion remember how he allowed His body to be broken for our sin.

· Jesus went through the greatest of “fire” and sacrifice on our behalf

· The unleavened bread spoke of the absence of sin; Leaven is yeast. It only takes a very small amount of leaven (sin) to affect the entire lump of dough (our life).


9 Do not eat it raw, nor boiled at all with water, but roasted in fire—its head with its legs and its entrails. 10 You shall let none of it remain until morning, and what remains of it until morning you shall burn with fire. 11 And thus you shall eat it: with a belt on your waist, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. So you shall eat it in haste. It is the Lord’s Passover.

· We’re just passing through this life, be ready to leave

12 ‘For I will pass through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the Lord.

· God will pass by all creation and pass Judgment on the Last Day

13 Now the blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you; and the plague shall not be on you to destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.

· When God sees Christ’s blood, He passes over us

14 ‘So this day shall be to you a memorial; and you shall keep it as a feast to the Lord throughout your generations. You shall keep it as a feast by an everlasting ordinance.

· Our memorial is communion

15 Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses. For whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel. 16 On the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation for you. No manner of work shall be done on them; but that which everyone must eat—that only may be prepared by you.

· We should remove the sin from our life; over time our life should be free from sin for longer periods of time

……… 27 that you shall say, ‘It is the Passover sacrifice of the Lord, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when He struck the Egyptians and delivered our households.’ ” So the people bowed their heads and worshiped. 28 Then the children of Israel went away and did so; just as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so they did.

IV. Prophecy Fulfilled

What is prophecy [2] ? It is a future event(s) foretold by God through His prophet. It is not vague, lucky or coincidence [3] . The Old Testament contains approx 425 prophesies about Jesus.

But isn’t that just taking a bunch of text portions, half sentences and phrases out of context? True, that a few partial phrases here and there wouldn’t prove much, but FOUR HUNDRED TWENTY FIVE prophesies taken as a group; each and everyone fulfilled to the last detail…. That’s easily makes Jesus the most authenticated person in history.

Sampling of Prophecies fulfilled in Jesus:

Isaiah 53Psalm 22

Prophecy – Date


Born as a human male – 700BC

· Isa 9.6-7 …a child is born, to us a son is given…he will be called… Mighty God, Everlasting Father..

· Mark 1.1

· Jn 1.1-3, 14

Born of a Virgin – 700BC

· Isa 7.14

· Matt 1.20-23

From the House of Judah – 700BC

· Isa 37.31

· Matt 1.1-2, 16

Ancestor of Jesse – 700BC

· Isa 11.10

· Isa 11.1-5

· Rom 15.12

· Matt 1.1-2, 5-6, 16

From the House of David – 700BC

· Isa 16.5

· Matt 1.1-2, 6, 16

Born in Bethlehem – 700BC

· Micah 5.2

· Matt 2.1

From Nazareth – 700BC

· Isa 9.1-2

· Matt 2.22-23

· Matt 4.13-16

His Birth would trigger a massacre of baby boys – 625 BC

· Jer 31.15

· Matt 2.16-18

· “thousands” were not killed. Bethlehem was a small rural town. Probably less than 50 were killed

Come out of Egypt – 725 BC

· Hos 11.1

· Matt 2.14-15

Messiah would include theGentiles – 700 BC

· Isa 49.6

· Isa 42.1-4, 6

· Matt 12.14-21

· This fact didn’t sit well with the ruling religious class; they didn’t want to share their special status with anyone

Miraculous Healings – 700 BC

· Isa 29.18

· Isa 35.5-6

· Lk 7.20-22

· Jn 21.25
Jesus did so many “works” and miracles that if written down, the world may not contain enough books to hold the account of them all

He would deliver spiritual captives – 700BC

· Isa 61.1-2

· Lk 4.16-21

Despised and rejected by men – 700 BC

· Isa 53.3

· Is the crucifixion proof enough?

Hated without cause – 1000 BC

· Ps 69.4

· Isa 49.7

· Jn 7.48-49

· Jn 15.24-25

· Jesus was betrayed, accused, tried, convicted, sentence and murdered without cause; even those in Authority kept appealing to the mob that they have “found nothing” wrong with Jesus

Rejected by Rulers – 400 BC

· Psa 118.22

· Matt 21.42

· Jn 7.48-49

Rejected by his own brothers – 1000 BC

· Ps 69.8

· Mark 3.20-21

· Jn 7.1-5

Betrayed for 30 pieces of silver – 500 BC

· Zech 11.12

· Matt 26.14-15

· This was the price of an average, run of the mill slave; the Creator of the Universe… traded for the a few bucks

Silver returned and Potter Field purchased – 500 BC

· Zech 11.12-13

· Matt 27.3-10

Disciples scattered – 500 BC

· Zech 13.7

· Matt 26.31

Beaten with a rod – 700 BC

· Mic 5.1

· Mark 15.19

Vinegar to drink – 1000 BC

· Psa 69.21

· Matt 27.34

· Matt 27.48

Nails in hands and feet – 1000 BC

· Psa 22.16

· Jn 20.25

· This was prophesied long before crucifixion was even thought of; so it would have been a very strange prophesy until the practice of crucifying came into existence

Crushed for our sin – 700 BC

· Isa 53.5-6

· Rom 4.25

· I Cor 15.3

Suffered on behalf of others – 1000 BC

· Psa 69.4

· Isa 53.5-6

· Rom 4.25

· I Cor 15.3

Pierced – 700 BC

· Isa 53.5

· Zech 12.10

· Jn 19.33-34; 36-37

No bones broken – 1000 BC

· Psa 22.17

· Psa 34.20

· Jn 19.33, 36

· This was done to almost all the crucified to hasten their death. But Jesus, in fulfillment of prophecy died relatively quickly at exactly the prophesied moment and it was not necessary to break his legs

Clothes gambled for – 1000 BC

· Ps 22.18

· All four Gospels attest to this fact

Violently killed – 700 BC

· Isa 53.8

· Crucified

Put in a grave with the wicked – 700 BC

· Isa 53.9

· Even though He ended up in a private grave, this was not His “assignment”; Rome had assigned his “grave” as death and mutilation on the cross along side of the wicked; typically his body would have rotted or been eaten right off the cross

Buried in a rich man’s tomb – 700 BC

· Isa 53.9

· Matt 27.57,59-60

Resurrection – 700 BC

· Isa 53.8, 11

· Matt 28.2, 5-7, 9

· Indisputable eyewitness testimony, historical and legal evidence

He would suffer – 700 BC

· Isa 53.3

· Psa 22

· Mark 5.14-17 – Run out of town

· Jn 10.31-33 – Almost stoned

· Jn 7.1 – murder conspiracy

· Mk 3.20-21 – rejected by His family

· Jn 7.1-3,5 – His brothers sent Him off to be killed

· Abandoned by disciples and friends

· Crucified

Other prophesies