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The Bible seems to plainly teach that men are capable of hearing about God, hearing the Gospel and become aware of the choice between following their own way or submitting to God’s will.

Has man been created with the innate ability to accept or reject God’s offer of salvation in and of himself after being drawn by God to a point of decision?

The cornerstone of both the Calvinist/non-Calvinist systems rest firmly on this question. If the answer is “yes, God created in man the ability to hear, understand and make a decision about Christ” then Calvinism has no grounds. If the answer is “no, man does not have the ability to choose God, God has already chose” then Calvinism makes sense.

So is the plain teaching of the Bible that God created in man a true free will with regards to being drawn by the Spirit, presented in some way with the Gospel, and then able to make a true, independent, innately originated acceptance or rejection of it? Or is man completely incapable of this decision and that the appearance of that decision is really God’s work as per Calvinism?

Consider the way Gospel verses in the Bible need to be interpreted in order for Calvinism to be true:

  • When the Bible speaks of men “seeking” it must only be speaking of regenerated men who have been irresistibly drawn and predestined to “seek” because no other man has the ability. Why does God tell us to seek Him when many (or most) of us are never given the ability to do so by God’s decree?
  • When the Bible says, “believe” it must only addressed to the “Elect” because the “non-Elect” are incapable of believing. It is a command or promise that is offered to all, but available to only a select few.
  • When the Bible says “whosoever” it really only means the Elect and again, is at best a futile offer to the non-Elect, and at worst, a taunt because only the Elect are capable of receiving or responding to calls to believe or blessings of belief. “Whoever”, “All”, “Anyone” and “Every” don’t mean what they say, they mean “Elect”.

    Furthermore, even though the offer of the Gospel is to be made to “all” and “whosoever”, the fact that the majority of mankind have already been decreed or passed over and destined to eternal torment is in fact glorifying God because it displays His perfect justice (according to Calvinism). God decrees the condemnation of billions, denies them the ability to repent, then condemns them for their non-repentance even though they never even had the ability to repent, then He is glorified by punishing them for what they couldn’t even possibly have done (according to Calvinism).

  • When the Bible commands, “repent!” and describes the blessings of repentance it can only apply to Calvin’s elect and is a hollow, meaningless concept to everyone else.
  • When the Word is preached, or men persuaded, or efforts made to convert men, is it not wasted effort in reality (except, according to Calvinism that the preacher gained heavenly reward, was guaranteed converts and did so because he was commanded to)? The non-Elect had no chance to respond, and the Elect would respond no matter what. Granted this is a “logical conclusion” and not taught overtly by Calvinism, but it is a very hard conclusion to escape and makes no sense considering the sensible and logical nature of the God of the Bible.
  • All verses that command men to “choose”, “repent”, “believe”, “seek”, “turn” or “obey” are impossible for some and inevitable for others. Is that the plain teaching of Scripture?

All of these points may well be true. But they have to be assumed, concluded and read into the Bible text because the verses them simply do not plainly teach that every verse that says “seek”, “believe”, “repent”, or “obey” can only be meant for the Elect. They are nothing more than a taunt for everyone else because in essence God is commanding “repent, believe, obey… but you can’t because I didn’t ‘elect’ you”.

If these Calvinists ideas were plainly taught in Scripture in the same manner as the Trinity, as the God-Man, as Eternal Security, there would be no debate (yes, I know some people will debate anything, but just as orthodox Christians don’t argue the Trinity, neither would orthodox Christians argue Calvinism if it were clear and plain in Scripture).

While questions and logic do not dictate doctrine, they are certainly apart of the overall consideration. God is logical, reasonable and does not confuse. The Bible is plainly within the grasp of the common man. While there are “hard” Scriptures and difficult doctrines, for the most part Scripture is plain and forthright in content.

Questions that beg an answer in order for Calvinism to be true are:

  • If God has decreed all actions, decisions and results in eternity past, why does He command us to preach, to persuade, to convert, to strive or seek?
  • Does it not go against God’s revealed character (mercy, desire for all to be saved, love, patience) to offer salvation to all knowing full well that He has withheld the ability for most to be able to believe and accept the offer?
  • Is it just (and in rhythm with God’s revealed character) that men are condemned to ETERNAL punishment when they were created, decreed, judged, consigned and assigned to death and judgment all the while be denied the ability to even make a choice to turn to the God who decreed it?
  • Does most of the Bible even make sense or have a reason to exist if everything is already decided? Why bother? A man-derived question/conclusion, but none-the-less very valid and relevant.

The usual Calvinist answer to these questions are that we are “unable to reconcile them”; that it is “according to God’s good pleasure”; and that “who is the creation to question to the Creator”. While these answers are certainly applicable to certain issues and questions as taught in Scripture, they have become all too comfortable to use to support many conclusions of systematic theology that are otherwise unanswerable.

In the Scriptures listed below, ask your self these questions about each verse:

  1. Is the INABILITY of man to choose to follow God (as opposed to the natural inclination to pursue sin) plainly taught or do the verses plainly teach and command men to make a decision for God?

    Which is plainly taught: that it is mans choice to believe or repent or choose? Or, that only the Elect will be given the ability to do so, everyone else is unable?

  2. Is it obvious that “whosoever”, “whoever”, “all” and “every” (and other words that imply all of mankind) really means “the Elect”? Or does “Elect” need to be the logical conclusion based on belief in Calvinism?

    Does Scripture actually mean “all/whosoever/whoever/every” when Scripture says all/whosoever/whoever/every? Is it plain that God is trying to reach all men, or just trying to draw out the “Elect”?

  3. Is Calvinism plainly expressed in the Scriptures or do these Scriptures have to be molded to fit Calvinism? This is a question that requires deep and honest introspection. Without concluding whether or not Calvinism is true, can it be honestly said that Scripture plainly teaches Calvinism? Or is Calvinism imposed on the text?
  • Rom 3: 21 But now the righteousness of God apart from the law is revealed, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets, 22 even the righteousness of God, through faith in Jesus Christ, to all and on all who believe. For there is no difference; 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God

  • Heb 11: 6 But without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of those who diligently seek Him.
  • Col 3:1 If then you were raised with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ is, sitting at the right hand of God. 2 Set your mind on things above, not on things on the earth

  • Luke 12: 29 “And do not seek what you should eat or what you should drink, nor have an anxious mind. 30 For all these things the nations of the world seek after, and your Father knows that you need these things. 31 But seek the kingdom of God, and all these things shall be added to you.

  • Amos 5: 14 Seek good and not evil, That you may live; So the LORD God of hosts will be with you, As you have spoken.
  • Hosea 3: 5 Afterward the children of Israel shall return and seek the LORD their God and David their king. They shall fear the LORD and His goodness in the latter days.

  • Psa 70: 4 Let all those who seek You rejoice and be glad in You; And let those who love Your salvation say continually, “Let God be magnified!”

  • Psa 69: 32 The humble shall see this and be glad; And you who seek God, your hearts shall live.

  • I Chron 16: 11 Seek the LORD and His strength; Seek His face evermore!
  • Matt 3: In those days John the Baptist came preaching in the wilderness of Judea, 2 and saying, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand!”

  • 2 Chronicles 15:2 And he went out to meet Asa, and said to him: “Hear me, Asa, and all Judah and Benjamin. The Lord is with you while you are with Him. If you seek Him, He will be found by you; but if you forsake Him, He will forsake you.
  • Psalm 9:10 And those who know Your name will put their trust in You; For You, Lord, have not forsaken those who seek You.

  • Psalm 34:10 The young lions lack and suffer hunger; But those who seek the LORD shall not lack any good thing.
  • Psalm 40:16 Let all those who seek You rejoice and be glad in You; Let such as love Your salvation say continually, “The LORD be magnified!”
  • Psalm 42:1 As the deer pants for the water brooks, So pants my soul for You, O God.
  • Isaiah 55:6-7 Seek the LORD while He may be found, Call upon Him while He is near. 7 Let the wicked forsake his way, And the unrighteous man his thoughts; Let him return to the LORD, And He will have mercy on him; And to our God, For He will abundantly pardon.
  • Acts 17:24-27 God, who made the world and everything in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands. 25 Nor is He worshiped with men’s hands, as though He needed anything, since He gives to all life, breath, and all things. 26 And He has made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the face of the earth, and has determined their preappointed times and the boundaries of their dwellings, 27 so that they should seek the Lord, in the hope that they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us;

  • Psalm 69:6 Let not those who wait for You, O Lord GOD of hosts, be ashamed because of me; Let not those who seek You be confounded because of me, O God of Israel.
  • Proverbs 28:5 Evil men do not understand justice, But those who seek the LORD understand all.
  • Hosea 10:12 Sow for yourselves righteousness; Reap in mercy; Break up your fallow ground, For it is time to seek the LORD, Till He comes and rains righteousness on you.
  • Zephaniah 2:3 Seek the LORD, all you meek of the earth, Who have upheld His justice. Seek righteousness, seek humility. It may be that you will be hidden In the day of the LORD’s anger.
  • 2 Timothy 3:12 Yes, and all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus will suffer persecution.

  • I Timothy 1:15 This is a faithful saying and worthy of all acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief.

  • Gal 3:22 But the Scripture has confined all under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe.

  • 2 Cor 5:17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things have passed away; behold, all things have become new.

  • 2 Cor 5:14 For the love of Christ compels us, because we judge thus: that if One died for all, then all died; 15 and He died for all, that those who live should live no longer for themselves, but for Him who died for them and rose again.

  • Matt 4: 17 From that time Jesus began to preach and to say, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.

  • Mark 1: 14 Now after John was put in prison, Jesus came to Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God, 15 and saying, “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel.”

  • Mark 6: 12 So they went out and preached that people should repent.

  • Luke 13: 5 I tell you, no; but unless you repent you will all likewise perish.
  • Acts 2: 38 Then Peter said to them, “Repent, and let every one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 39 For the promise is to you and to your children, and to all who are afar off, as many as the Lord our God will call.”

  • Acts 3: 19 Repent therefore and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, so that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord.

  • Acts 17: 30 Truly, these times of ignorance God overlooked, but now commands all men everywhere to repent, 31 because He has appointed a day on which He will judge the world in righteousness by the Man whom He has ordained. He has given assurance of this to all by raising Him from the dead.”

  • Acts 26: 19 “Therefore, King Agrippa, I was not disobedient to the heavenly vision, 20 but declared first to those in Damascus and in Jerusalem, and throughout all the region of Judea, and then to the Gentiles, that they should repent, turn to God, and do works befitting repentance
  • Matt 5: 19 Whoever therefore breaks one of the least of these commandments, and teaches men so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever does and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven

  • Matt 7: 24 “Therefore whoever hears these sayings of Mine, and does them, I will liken him to a wise man who built his house on the rock

  • Matt 10: 32 “Therefore whoever confesses Me before men, him I will also confess before My Father who is in heaven. 33 But whoever denies Me before men, him I will also deny before My Father who is in heaven.

  • Matt 12: 50 For whoever does the will of My Father in heaven is My brother and sister and mother.

  • Matt 16: 25 For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake will find it. 26 For what profit is it to a man if he gains the whole world, and loses his own soul? Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul?

  • Matt 18:4 Therefore whoever humbles himself as this little child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. 5 Whoever receives one little child like this in My name receives Me.

  • Mark 8: 34 When He had called the people to Himself, with His disciples also, He said to them, Whoever desires to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me. 35 For whoever desires to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for My sake and the gospel’s will save it. 36 For what will it profit a man if he gains the whole world, and loses his own soul? 37 Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul? 38 For whoever is ashamed of Me and My words in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him the Son of Man also will be ashamed when He comes in the glory of His Father with the holy angels.
  • Luke 6: 47 Whoever comes to Me, and hears My sayings and does them, I will show you whom he is like: 48 He is like a man building a house, who dug deep and laid the foundation on the rock.
  • John 3: 15 that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have eternal life. 16 For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. 17 For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.

  • John 4:13 Jesus answered and said to her, “Whoever drinks of this water will thirst again, 14 but whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him will never thirst. But the water that I shall give him will become in him a fountain of water springing up into everlasting life.”

  • John 6: 54 Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.
  • John 11: 26 And whoever lives and believes in Me shall never die. Do you believe this?

  • John 12: 46 I have come as a light into the world, that whoever believes in Me should not abide in darkness.
  • Acts 2: 21 And it shall come to pass; that whoever calls on the name of the LORD Shall be saved.

  • Acts 10: 42 And He commanded us to preach to the people, and to testify that it is He who was ordained by God to be Judge of the living and the dead. 43 To Him all the prophets witness that, through His name, whoever believes in Him will receive remission of sins.
  • Rom 10: 13 Forwhoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved.

  • I John 4: 14 And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son as Savior of the world. 15 Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God.

  • I John 5:1 Whoever believes that Jesus is the Christ is born of God, and everyone who loves Him who begot also loves him who is begotten of Him.

  • Col 1: 27 To them God willed to make known what are the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles: which is Christ in you, the hope of glory. 28 Him we preach, warning every man and teaching every man in all wisdom, that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus.

  • Eph 3: 8 To me, who am less than the least of all the saints, this grace was given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ, 9 and to make all see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the ages has been hidden in God who created all things through Jesus Christ;

  • I Cor 15: 11 Therefore, whether it was I or they, so we preach and so you believed.
  • Mark 16: 15 And He said to them, “Go into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature. 16 He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who does not believe will be condemned.
  • Rom 10: 15 And how shall they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: “How beautiful are the feet of those who preach the gospel of peace, Who bring glad tidings of good things!”

  • 2 Tim 4: 2 Preach the word! Be ready in season and out of season. Convince, rebuke, exhort, with all longsuffering and teaching.
  • Luke 13: 24 Strive to enter through the narrow gate, for many, I say to you, will seek to enter and will not be able.

  • Acts 26: 28 Then Agrippa said to Paul, “You almost persuade me to become a Christian.”

  • 2 Cor 5: 11 Knowing, therefore, the terror of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are well known to God, and I also trust are well known in your consciences.

Regardless of whether Calvinism is true or not, when you read the most common verses espoused by Calvinists, a relevant question is (and this question applies to all conclusions and interpretations not just Calvin’s):

Is my interpretation (Calvinist or otherwise) infused into the Scripture in question,
or is my interpretation truly derived from the obvious intent of the verse?

When you read the following verses, is Calvinism the clear and plain conclusion, or it is imposed on the text?

  • Ephesians 1:4-6 just as He chose us in Him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love, 5 having predestined us to adoption as sons by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will, 6 to the praise of the glory of His grace, by which He made us accepted in the Beloved.

    In Calvinism, “Elect” means that God chose individuals to be saved, and hence they are the “Elect”. Non-Calvinism proposes that God predestined those who believe in Christ to become the Elect, and yes, God foreknew who would make that decision.

    When you read verses about Election notice that a description or blessing of belief follows: God chose us (who is us? Certain individual? Or those who would believe in Christ or have faith in God?) in eternity past that what? That we should be holy and without blame. Who will end up being “holy and without blame”? Those who believe in Christ, the “Elect” (who are the Elect in light of their belief in Christ).

  • Romans 8:28-30 And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose. 29 For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. 30 Moreover whom He predestined, these He also called; whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified.

    Clearly, plainly: God works all things together for good for those who are called. Whom He foreknew (had knowledge of from eternity past), He predestined (decreed to be so) to what? Salvation? Not in this verse. He predestined them to be “conformed to the image of His Son.” Who? Those who believe in His Son or those individuals God chose in eternity past? Doesn’t specify in this verse.

    Who He predestined, He calls; who He calls, He justifies then glorifies. This part is very clearly taught.

    The Calvinist assumes that “whom” means those individuals that chose in eternity past to be saved. Is it not an equally viable interpretation that “whom” refers to those who are drawn by God and make a free will choice to accept His offer of salvation?

    ”For whom He foreknew”, God is omniscient, yes, He foreknows all decisions and events, free will or otherwise. Foreknew what? That they would accept Christ or that they were already elected to salvation as per Calvinism? Either interpretation is viable.

    The non-Calvinist position on this verse in summary is that God foreknows all men and all their decisions (not because “He looked down the corridors of time and saw who would save themselves” which is the very common Calvinist response to this point. This implies that man saves himself and then God responds to it which is not what any serious Bible student believes); those He foreknew would believe on His Son, were decreed or predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son; He would call them, they would respond, He would justify them and glorify them.

  • Romans 8:7-8 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be. 8 So then, those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

    The unsaved or carnal mind is against God. It cannot be subject or submissive to God’s law because it is still enslaved by sin. “In the flesh” you cannot please God. There is absolutely nothing in this verse about “only the Elect can respond to God and man has no ability to hear and respond to God’s call”. You cannot please God until you believe on His Son and are reborn supernaturally.

  • Romans 9:11-13 (for the children not yet being born, nor having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works but of Him who calls), 12 it was said to her, “The older shall serve the younger.” 13 As it is written, “Jacob I have loved, but Esau I have hated.”

    This verse is used Calvinistically to “prove” God elected Jacob and passed over Esau. In context this verse is referring to God’s plan for the nations that were produced by these two men and what God’s plan for them would be. Jacob’s line brought forth our salvation through the birth of Jesus and so God’s purpose was indeed fulfilled.

    For the sake of argument, let’s assume that this is indeed talking about two individual men and not to the nations they produced.

    Is it not an equally reasonable interpretation that God in His omniscience knew the nature of each man and providentially orchestrated the events of their lives to fulfill His will, yes, based on His perfect knowledge of what each man, in his free will, would choose to do?

    Why is the only interpretation of this verse the “obvious” interpretation that Jacob was elected and Esau was passed over (according to Calvinist)?

    The point I try to make here is not that “Calvinists are wrong, here’s the real interpretation” but that Calvinists are wrong to insist there’s only one possible interpretation and that is theirs.

  • 2 Thessalonians 2:13 But we are bound to give thanks to God always for you, brethren beloved by the Lord, because God from the beginning chose you for salvation through sanctification by the Spirit and belief in the truth.

    Again, the point being there are two reasonable interpretations:

    Calvinist: God chose individuals from the beginning to be saved

    Non-Calvinist: God chose those who would believe in His Son for the blessing of salvation through the Spirit and belief (a choice) in the truth.

    The main question being, who is “you”? Specific individuals? Or any individual who believes in Christ? Both are reasonable and should not be dismissed as possible meanings.

  • 1 Corinthians 2:7 But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, the hidden wisdom which God ordained before the ages for our glory

    A common verse used to support the idea of election of individuals to salvation, but is that idea actually in this verse, or imposed on this verse? God ordained before the ages how salvation was possible and that wisdom is hidden from the spiritually dead.

  • Romans 11:33 Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and His ways past finding out!

    The Calvinist would append this verse with “…unless you are one of the Elect”. This verse is not a doctrinal statement on depravity, it is a comparison of God’s knowledge compared to ours. It conveys the infinite chasm that divides our great God from our human frailty.

  • Romans 9:21 Does not the potter have power over the clay, from the same lump to make one vessel for honor and another for dishonor?

    Yes, the Potter has full and total control. God has created each of us for His purpose and His use according to His purpose.

    Election and reprobation are no where to be found in this verse outside of the necessity of it to support Calvinism.

When you read verses that describes man’s condition (depravity) do the verses teach that man is INCAPABLE of hearing and accepting the Gospel, or is this imposed on the verse? While it may well be a “logical conclusion” it remains: does the verse clearly teach it, or does a Calvinist bias make it “plain”?

  • Psalm 58:3 The wicked are estranged from the womb; They go astray as soon as they are born, speaking lies.

    As soon as men are born, they begin to purse sin. Does this verse plainly teach man is incapable of hearing and responding and choosing God?

  • Psalm 51:5 Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, And in sin my mother conceived me.

    Born in sin, absolutely. Does this verse plainly teach man is incapable of hearing and responding and choosing God?

  • Genesis 8:21 And the Lord smelled a soothing aroma. Then the Lord said in His heart, “I will never again curse the ground for man’s sake, although the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth; nor will I again destroy every living thing as I have done.

    Man is evil plainly. Does this verse plainly teach man is incapable of hearing and responding and choosing God?

  • Jeremiah 17:9 “The heart is deceitful above all things, And desperately wicked; Who can know it?

    Man’s heart is deceitful. Does this verse plainly teach man is incapable of hearing and responding and choosing God?

  • John 8:34 Jesus answered them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, whoever commits sin is a slave of sin.

    Man is a slave to sin, unable to escape that slavery without God. Does this verse plainly teach man is incapable of hearing and responding and choosing God?

  • Romans 8:7-8 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be. So then, those who are in the flesh cannot please God.

    Man’s mind is at odds with God, against God. It does not subject itself to God. In the flesh we undeniably incapable of doing anything pleasing to God. Does this verse plainly teach man is incapable of hearing and responding and choosing God?

  • Hebrews 11:6 But without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of those who diligently seek Him.

    Without faith you cannot please God. God is the provider and reward of that faith. We must believe (a choice) and diligently seek Him. Does this verse plainly teach man is incapable of hearing and responding and choosing God?

  • Romans 5:19 For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience many will be made righteous.

    We were all made sinners through Adam. Does this verse plainly teach man is incapable of hearing and responding and choosing God?

  • 1 Corinthians 15:22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive.

    Adam, death. Christ life. Does this verse plainly teach man is incapable of hearing and responding and choosing God?

  • Ephesians 2:1-5 And you He made alive, who were dead in trespasses and sins, 2 in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience, 3 among whom also we all once conducted ourselves in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, just as the others. 4 But God, who is rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us, 5 even when we were dead in trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved)

    DEAD in trespasses in sin. But not physically dead, just as Adam did not physically die immediately after sinning. Calvinism uses the analogy of “how can the dead respond to God?” How can the dead sin? How can the dead reject Christ? On what basis are they then condemned to eternal Hell? This is a clear case of reading more into the verse that is there.

    We are spiritually dead, justly condemned and bound for hell. But obviously not physically dead and yes, able to hear and respond to the Gospel. Does this verse plainly teach man is incapable of hearing and responding and choosing God?